History of the Republic of Belarus
In a brief description
History through the centuries
- X century - It laid the foundations of statehood in the Belarusian lands. On the way from "Varangians to the Greeks" created state Krivichy - principality of Polotsk. The first chronicles its details associated with the Scandinavian Vikings. The chronicle "Gesta Danorum" (Gesta Danorum) talks about the campaign against Polotsk (Palteskja) the legendary King Frodi I (V-VI century AD.) First mentioned in the chronicles of the Prince of Polotsk was Rogvolod. And next Polotsk princes were called in the chronicles "Rogvolozhi grandchildren" or Izyaslavovichi (on behalf of his son and grandson Rogneda Rogvolod - Izyaslav) At the end of the century took place the baptism of Polotsk legendary Christian missionary and traveler Kodranssonom Torvalds.
- XI century - Century Duchy of flowering (occupied nearly a third of present-day Belarus). The reign of the two princes - Bryacheslava (1003-1044) and Vseslav "Sorcerer" (1044-1101). Trips to Novgorod, confrontation with Rurikovich-Yaroslaviches and the battle on the Nemiga. Close ties with Scandinavia. About the confrontation with Bryacheslava Yaroslaviches folded "eymundar þáttr hrings" which konung Eymund on the side of Bryacheslava. Sophia, Princess Minsk, was the wife of Danish King Valdemar I the Great and Queen of Denmark. Paganism and Christianity. The construction of St. Sophia Cathedral in Polotsk, and the princes, "advice from the wise men, and born of volhovaniya".
- XII century - Age of feudal fragmentation and internecine war. After the death of Vseslav Magician, the principality of Polotsk (covered about half of present-day Belarus and reached the shores of the Gulf of Riga) was divided in Minsk, Vitebsk, Drouts, Izyaslav, Logoisk, and Strezhevskoy Gorodtsovskoe principality among his sons. Grodno and Turov principality split into fiefdoms. In the west and north-west of Belarus - "Yatvingians lands, Lithuanian and Lithuanian small narodkov" (J. Safarik) own statehood only develops. On these lands is the migration of the Polabian Slavs, leaving from the German expansion in the western Baltic.
- XIII century - In Prussia and Livonia dominated by the Teutonic and Livonian Order. Reduced Polotsk role in transit trade along the Western Dvina.Ends migration Polabian Slavs in the north-west of the Belarusian land [is described in detail in the classic work by J. Safarik]In the reign of Mindaugas formed Duchy of Lithuania with its capital in Novogrudok (later transferred to Vilna).After the death of his son-in-law and Voyshalka Shvarna, princely (royal) family breaks.Anarchie or sans duc. (Anarchy, without a prince,. France) - as characterized in the old textbooks from 1223 in Polotsk principality and 1267 Duchy of Lithuania. The end of this period associated with the reign of children Lyutuvera (Lutuver) - Prince Warrior in 1307 in Polotsk, and in 1291 Duke Vytenis Lithuania.Gediminas, who took reign after Vytenis and peacefully (without war) to combine the two principalities, was considered the third son Lyutuvera.
- XIV century - During the reign of Gediminas and Algirdas all Belarusian lands are gathered into a single state - the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.There is formation of a single Belarusian nation.B. Duke Gediminas, seeking to integrate the country into the European cultural space, refers to Pope John XXII, and in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania comes kotolichestvo. So religion, namely the different denominations of Christianity eastern and western lands, began to play a prominent role in the history of Belarus.B. Duke Algirdas, breaking the Horde in the Battle of Blue Waters, joins Earth Ruska. Grand Duchy Litvoskoe becomes the largest country in Europe, the country "from sea to sea."
- XV century - ON has reached its peak. Developed European countries with a complex power structure (the Grand Duke, Marshal, Chancellor and Hetman, etc.).The first inter-religious conflict - civil war years 1432-1435.The Battle of Grunwald - ending wars with the Teutonic Order and priseodenenie Samogitii.There has come the "Golden Age" (1410-1569) - the time the Belarusian Renaissance.Issued Statute ON, published the works of humanists and Enlightenment - the golden heritage of Belarus.Forming of the Belarusian nation.
- XVI century - ON merged with the Kingdom of Poland in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth of the Two Nations to confront external threats - mainly expansion to the west of Moscow.Signed act of the Warsaw Confederation, which initiated the religious freedom in the Commonwealth (in the background of religious wars in Europe).To reduce inter-confessional contradictions and reduce Moscow's influence in the internal affairs of the State Union of Brest adopted - the transition of Orthodox parishes in the Greek Catholic (Uniate).[Aggressiveness neighbors influence on the culture of Belarus is well illustrated by the current state of the Belarusian language. In the Polish Bialystok - a living (frequently used in everyday life) and official (one of) the language. In Belarus itself, and, especially in the Russian Smolensk, the situation is different]
- XVII century - Century of continuous wars. Bloody Flood - the population has fallen by half.War with Muscovy, Sweden, the Ottoman Empire, the troops Zaporizhzhya.The weakening of the central government in the confrontation with the "gentry democracy."[ON-Belarusian Gentry was 12-15% of the population]
- XVIII century - Century magnate anarchy.Attempts to find a way out of the crisis of the state. Civil war and Confederation gentry.Great Northern War on the territory of Belarus, ON.Age of the final section of the Commonwealth and the Kosciuszko uprising of 1794
- XIX century - Belarusian land - Northwestern Krai in the Russian Empire.The War of 1812 for Belarus - the last Radziwill militia against the Belarusian Grodno and hussar regiments.1863, Kalinowski revolt - a revolt of the peasantry and the gentry of Belarus, Poland, against the Empire Lietuva.Secret patriotic and educational association of students. Philomath Filaret.
- XX century - World War I. The collapse of the Russian Empire.Belarusian People's Republic - the successor to ON, the predecessor of present-day Belarus.Byelorussian SSR within the USSR. The Second World War. The collapse of the Soviet Union.Republic of Belarus.
"Who falls globalism, which was created by the Cold War, this machine has stopped working, and everything stopped working in Turkey, for example, again entered the Ottoman language, which was banned by Ataturk in China everyone is talking only about Confucius in the Muslim world -.... Salafism, it's a return to the Islam of the prophet times.All go to basics, looking for cultural identity. Everyone is trying to define and find their place through recourse to a very simple formula for its cultural identity. a huge world market has been established, where there is competition.To compete successfully, you need to have what is called "human capital", and this is a basis - the family, its old culture, tradition.In short, the popular wisdom, national traditions, and so on have a sedative and simultaneously disciplining influence on a person in the face of international competition "
If you have time, you should read more about this incredible human being on his A Brief History of Belarus in the last 1000 years.